Denmark is a prosperous, democratic country in Northern Europe with a high standard of living, a low level of corruption, and a high level of education and health care. Denmark has a long tradition in scientific and technological invention and engagement.
Denmark has a modern market economy with a high-tech agricultural sector, advanced industry with world-leading companies in pharmaceuticals, maritime shipping and renewable energy. However, the economy of Denmark highly depends on foreign trade.
Danish banking sector is characterized by large size in terms of total assets, high degree of concentration while having a significant number of small banks, and prevailing share of domestic banks over foreign-controlled banks which are represented in Denmark by a few large international groups.
1 EUR = 7.4417 DKK (2017-12-08)
During the last 11 years EURDKK exchange rate was within the range 7.4319 - 7.4697, reaching its maximum in Mar 2015 and falling to its minimum in May 2012.
Chart 1. Euro to Danish krone (EURDKK). Source: ECB.
|Nominal GDP (2016)||Nominal GDP per Capita (2016)||Real GDP Growth (2016)|
|276.8 bln EUR (+0.04%)||48 300 EUR (+0.03%)||1.3 % (2015: 1.2 %)|
According to Eurostat, nominal GDP of Denmark in 2016 was 276.8 bln EUR.
Denmark underperforms the European Union in terms of real GDP growth with the average annual differential coming to -0.2% over the past 10 years (2006 - 2016). In 2016 real GDP growth was 1.3% which was below the Euro Area average (1.8%) and below the European Union average (1.9%). Real GDP growth in 2017 - 2022 are IMF's estimates.
Chart 2. Real GDP Growth in Denmark. Source: Eurostat, International Monetary Fund.
In 2016, nominal GDP per capita in Denmark was 48 300 EUR.
Denmark has an above-average level of wealth in terms of per-capita GDP at purchasing power parity (PPP); this economic welfare indicator has, on average, exceeded that of the European Union by 19.5% over the past 10 years (2006 - 2016). GDP per capita at PPP in 2017 - 2022 are IMF's estimates.
Chart 3. GDP Per Capita at Purchasing Power Parity in Denmark; European Union = 100.
|CPI, MoM (Sep 2017)||CPI, YoY (Sep 2017)||CPI, Year Average (2016)|
|0.1 % (Aug 2017: -0.4 %)||1.6 % (Aug 2017: 1.5 %)||0.0 % (2015: 0.2 %)|
According to Eurostat, inflation rate in Denmark in 2016 expressed as annual percentages of average consumer prices was 0.0% which was below the Euro Area average (0.2%) and below the European Union average (0.3%). Inflation rates in 2017 - 2022 are IMF's estimates.
Chart 4. Inflation Rate in Denmark. Source: Eurostat, International Monetary Fund.
|Unemployment Rate (2016)|
|6.2 % (unchanged)|
|Government Bond Yield (Sep 2017)|
|0.51 % (Aug 2017: 0.55 %)|
Chart 5. Government bond yield of Denmark. Source: Eurostat.
|AAA (highest credit quality), outlook stable||Aaa (prime), outlook stable|
Withholding taxes are imposed at source of income and are often applied to dividends, interest, royalties, rent and similar payments. The rates of withholding tax are often reduced by double taxation agreements.
Withholding tax rates applied on payments of interest and dividends in Denmark are shown in Table 1.
|Natural person, resident||27.0 %||0.0 %|
|Natural person, non-resident||27.0 %||0.0 %|
Double Taxation Agreement (DTA) is an agreement between two or more countries for the avoidance of double taxation.
Denmark signed DTAs which already came info force with the following jurisdictions (for agreements which came into force after 1 January 2013 the date of coming into force is given in brackets):
There are also several agreements between Denmark and other jurisdictions which were signed but haven't yet come into force (for agreements signed after after 1 January 2013 of signing the agreement is given in brackets):
There are 3 ways for jusrisdictions to exchange information on tax matters:
Spontaneous exchange of information is provision of information that is forseeably relevant to another party without a request being previously sent.
Tax Information Exchange Agreements (TIEAs) enable exchange of information on request relating to a specific tax investigation, either criminal or civil.
Automatic information exchange allows jurisdictions to exchange information automatically, without having a specific tax investigation.
Denmark signed TIEAs which already came info force with the following jurisdictions (for agreements which came into force after 1 January 2013 the date of coming into force is given in brackets):
There are also several agreements between Denmark and other jurisdictions which was signed but haven't yet come into force (for agreements signed after 1 January 2013 of signing the agreement is given in brackets):
Denmark signed the automatic information exchange agreement on 29 October 2014 and committed to start the automatic information exchange in September 2017.
Denmark has signed bilateral agreements with 58 jurisdictions to automatically receive information:
Denmark has signed bilateral agreements with 70 jurisdictions to automatically send information:
Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (FATCA) which became law in the United States in March 2010, focuses on reporting made by foreign financial institutions about financial accounts held by US taxpayers or foreign entities in which US taxpayers hold a substantial ownership interest. The FATCA-reporting is facilitated by Intergovernmental Agreements (IGAs).
|FATCA Status in Denmark|
|IGA in effect since 19 November 2012, Model 1|
Denmark has FATCA agreement with the U.S. in effect since 19 November 2012 (Intergovernmental Agreement Model 1). Financial institutions operating in Denmark are required to identify U.S. taxpayers by January 1, 2017 and to report the information for 2017 and the subsequent years. The agreement is reciprocal: Danish financial accounts hold in U.S. financial institutions will be reported to Danish authorities.
|Financial Market Development|
|4.9 (max 7.0), 21st out of 138 countries|
|5.8 (max 7.0), 18th out of 138 countries|
According to World Economic Forum's Global Competitiveness Report 2017-2018, financial market development in Denmark is scored 4.9 out of maximum 7.0 and ranked 21st out of 138 analysed economies, trustworthiness and confidence of financial market is scored 5.5 (11th place).
Chart 6. Financial Market Development in Denmark. Source: WEF.
Soundness of banks is scored 5.8 bringing Denmark into the 18th place.
Chart 7. Soundness of Banks in Denmark. Source: WEF.
|Maximum Protected Amount|
|100 000 EUR|
Deposit Guarantee Schemes compensate certain deposits held by depositors of a bank that becomes unable to meet its obligations.
From a depositor's point of view it is important to know:
All these details about deposit guarantee scheme in Denmark are summarised in Table 2.
|Scheme Participants||all credit institutions operating in Denmark, branches of non-EEA banks, branches of Danish banks abroad|
|Scheme Exemptions||branches of EEA-banks (covered by their home countries)|
|Eligible Depositors||natural persons, legal entities|
|Covered Accounts||cash deposits|
|Maximum Protected Amount||100 000 EUR|
|Paid In Currency||EUR|
Table 2. Deposit guarantee scheme in Denmark.
EEA stands for European Economic Area and consists of all EU member states plus Liechtenstein, Norway and Iceland.
Moody's country ceilings for deposits specify the highest rating that can be assigned to local- or foreign- currency denominated deposit obligations of a bank or other deposit taking institution domiciled within that country.
|Local Currency (Danish krone)||Foreign Currency|
|Aaa (prime)||Aaa (prime)|
Local currency (Danish krone) deposit ceiling for Denmark is set to Aaa (prime), foreign currency deposit ceiling is Aaa (prime).
|Average Deposit Rate (Aug 2017, DKK)|
|0.28 % (Jul 2017: 0.66 %)|
Chart 8. Deposit Rates in Denmark. Source: ECB.
|Number of Banks|
|Consolidated Assets (2016)|
|909.34 bln EUR (+4.37%)|
|Recent Changes (2016)|
|new banks: 1, closed banks: 4|
Currently there are 109 credit institutions operating in Denmark.
In 2016 consolidated banking assets in Denmark were 909.34 bln EUR. The consolidated banking assets' evolution is shown at Chart 9 below.
Chart 9. Consolidated banking assets in Denmark.
Recent structural changes (2013 - 2016) of the banking sector of Denmark are summarised in Table 3.
|Number of Opened Banks||0||10||4||1|
|Number of Closed Banks||10||8||7||4|
Table 3. Recent structural changes in the banking sector of Denmark.
The list of the most recently opened banks in Denmark is provided in Table 4.
|Citibank Europe plc, Denmark Branch, Filial af Citibank Europe plc, Irland (new)||July 2016|
|Maj Bank A/S (new)||September 2015|
|Eurocard Danmark, filial af Eurocard AB, Sverige (new)||February 2015|
|Resurs Bank, filial af Resurs Bank Aktiebolag, Sverige (new)||February 2015|
|UBS (Luxembourg) S.A.,Denmark branch, filial af UBS (Luxembourg) S.A. (closed)||February 2015|
|Coop Bank A/S (new)||July 2014|
|Deutsche Bank AG, Copenhagen Branch, filial af Deutsche Bank AG, Tyskland (closed)||July 2014|
|Forso Danmark, filial af Forso Nordic AB, Sverige (new)||July 2014|
|Handelsbanken Kredit, filial af Stadshypotek AB, Sverige (new)||July 2014|
|Landbrugets Finansieringsbank A/S (new)||July 2014|
Table 4. The most recently opened banks in Denmark.
All the credit institutions operating in Denmark can be classified into several categories. Table 5 summarises the number of banks in each category.
|Category||Number of Banks|
|Branches of foreign banks||25|
There are 25 branches of foreign banks from 7 different countries in Denmark. Table 6 shows the number of branches grouped by the country of origin.
|Country of Origin||Number of Branches|