Hungary is a country in Central Europe , a member of the European Union since 2004.
Hungary is a high-income mixed economy. Major industries of the Hungarian economy include food processing, pharmaceuticals, motor vehicles, chemicals, metallurgy, machinery, and tourism.
Hungarian banking sector is dominated by foreign-controlled banks from the neighbouring countries, operating as universal banks. Along with these banks, there are regional savings and mortgage banks and building societies.
1 EUR = 313.95 HUF (2017-12-11)
During the last 11 years EURHUF exchange rate was within the range 231.26 - 317.06, reaching its maximum in Jun 2016 and falling to its minimum in Jul 2008.
Chart 1. Euro to Hungarian forint (EURHUF). Source: ECB.
|Nominal GDP (2016)||Nominal GDP per Capita (2016)||Real GDP Growth (2016)|
|112.4 bln EUR (+0.03%)||11 500 EUR (+0.03%)||2.0 % (2015: 2.9 %)|
According to Eurostat, nominal GDP of Hungary in 2016 was 112.4 bln EUR.
Hungary outperforms the European Union in terms of real GDP growth with the average annual differential coming to 0.9% over the past 10 years (2006 - 2016). In 2016 real GDP growth was 2.0% which was above the Euro Area average (1.8%) and above the European Union average (1.9%). Real GDP growth in 2017 - 2022 are IMF's estimates.
Chart 2. Real GDP Growth in Hungary. Source: Eurostat, International Monetary Fund.
In 2016, nominal GDP per capita in Hungary was 11 500 EUR.
Hungary has a below-average level of wealth in terms of per-capita GDP at purchasing power parity (PPP); this economic welfare indicator has, on average, fell behind that of the European Union by -26.5% over the past 10 years (2006 - 2016). GDP per capita at PPP in 2017 - 2022 are IMF's estimates.
Chart 3. GDP Per Capita at Purchasing Power Parity in Hungary; European Union = 100.
|CPI, MoM (Sep 2017)||CPI, YoY (Sep 2017)||CPI, Year Average (2016)|
|0.1 % (Aug 2017: 0.0 %)||2.5 % (Aug 2017: 2.7 %)||0.4 % (2015: 0.1 %)|
According to Eurostat, inflation rate in Hungary in 2016 expressed as annual percentages of average consumer prices was 0.4% which was above the Euro Area average (0.2%) and above the European Union average (0.3%). Inflation rates in 2017 - 2022 are IMF's estimates.
Chart 4. Inflation Rate in Hungary. Source: Eurostat, International Monetary Fund.
|Unemployment Rate (2016)|
|5.1 % (2015: 6.8 %)|
|Government Bond Yield (Sep 2017)|
|2.76 % (Aug 2017: 3.05 %)|
Chart 5. Government bond yield of Hungary. Source: Eurostat.
|BBB- (good credit quality), outlook stable||Ba1 (non-investment grade speculative), outlook positive|
Withholding taxes are imposed at source of income and are often applied to dividends, interest, royalties, rent and similar payments. The rates of withholding tax are often reduced by double taxation agreements.
Withholding tax rates applied on payments of interest and dividends in Hungary are shown in Table 1.
|Natural person, resident||16.0 %||16.0 %|
|Natural person, non-resident||16.0 %||16.0 %|
Double Taxation Agreement (DTA) is an agreement between two or more countries for the avoidance of double taxation.
Hungary signed DTAs which already came info force with the following jurisdictions (for agreements which came into force after 1 January 2013 the date of coming into force is given in brackets):
There are also several agreements between Hungary and other jurisdictions which were signed but haven't yet come into force (for agreements signed after after 1 January 2013 of signing the agreement is given in brackets):
There are 3 ways for jusrisdictions to exchange information on tax matters:
Spontaneous exchange of information is provision of information that is forseeably relevant to another party without a request being previously sent.
Tax Information Exchange Agreements (TIEAs) enable exchange of information on request relating to a specific tax investigation, either criminal or civil.
Automatic information exchange allows jurisdictions to exchange information automatically, without having a specific tax investigation.
Hungary signed TIEAs which already came info force with the following jurisdictions (for agreements which came into force after 1 January 2013 the date of coming into force is given in brackets):
There are also several agreements between Hungary and other jurisdictions which was signed but haven't yet come into force (for agreements signed after 1 January 2013 of signing the agreement is given in brackets):
Hungary signed the automatic information exchange agreement on 29 October 2014 and committed to start the automatic information exchange in September 2017.
Hungary has signed bilateral agreements with 56 jurisdictions to automatically receive information:
Hungary has signed bilateral agreements with 68 jurisdictions to automatically send information:
Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (FATCA) which became law in the United States in March 2010, focuses on reporting made by foreign financial institutions about financial accounts held by US taxpayers or foreign entities in which US taxpayers hold a substantial ownership interest. The FATCA-reporting is facilitated by Intergovernmental Agreements (IGAs).
|FATCA Status in Hungary|
|IGA in effect since 04 February 2014, Model 1|
Hungary has FATCA agreement with the U.S. in effect since 04 February 2014 (Intergovernmental Agreement Model 1). Financial institutions operating in Hungary are required to identify U.S. taxpayers by January 1, 2017 and to report the information for 2017 and the subsequent years. The agreement is reciprocal: Hungarian financial accounts hold in U.S. financial institutions will be reported to Hungarian authorities.
|Financial Market Development|
|4.3 (max 7.0), 45th out of 138 countries|
|4.7 (max 7.0), 74th out of 138 countries|
According to World Economic Forum's Global Competitiveness Report 2017-2018, financial market development in Hungary is scored 4.3 out of maximum 7.0 and ranked 45th out of 138 analysed economies, trustworthiness and confidence of financial market is scored 4.7 (39th place).
Chart 6. Financial Market Development in Hungary. Source: WEF.
Soundness of banks is scored 4.7 bringing Hungary into the 74th place.
Chart 7. Soundness of Banks in Hungary. Source: WEF.
|Maximum Protected Amount|
|100 000 EUR|
Deposit Guarantee Schemes compensate certain deposits held by depositors of a bank that becomes unable to meet its obligations.
From a depositor's point of view it is important to know:
All these details about deposit guarantee scheme in Hungary are summarised in Table 2.
|Scheme Participants||all credit institutions operating in Hungary (including branches of foreign banks), branches of Hungarian banks abroad|
|Eligible Depositors||natural persons, legal entities|
|Covered Currencies||EEA currencies|
|Maximum Protected Amount||100 000 EUR|
|Paid In Currency||HUF|
Table 2. Deposit guarantee scheme in Hungary.
EEA stands for European Economic Area and consists of all EU member states plus Liechtenstein, Norway and Iceland.
EEA currencies are all official currencies of EEA members. Switzerland is not a EEA member, but because CHF is the official currency of Liechtenstein, CHF also belongs to EEA currencies.
So, only the deposits made with Hungarian banks in the following currencies are covered by the deposit guarantee scheme of Hungary
|RON||Romanian new leu|
It should be also noted that deposits in non-EEA currencies (for example, USD and JPY) are not covered by the Hungarian deposit guarantee scheme.
Moody's country ceilings for deposits specify the highest rating that can be assigned to local- or foreign- currency denominated deposit obligations of a bank or other deposit taking institution domiciled within that country.
|Local Currency (Hungarian forint)||Foreign Currency|
|Baa2 (lower medium grade)||Ba2 (non-investment grade speculative)|
Local currency (Hungarian forint) deposit ceiling for Hungary is set to Baa2 (lower medium grade), foreign currency deposit ceiling is Ba2 (non-investment grade speculative).
|Average Deposit Rate (Aug 2017, HUF)|
|0.30 % (Jul 2017: 0.31 %)|
Chart 8. Deposit Rates in Hungary. Source: ECB.
|Number of Banks|
|Consolidated Assets (2016)|
|108.19 bln EUR (+5.38%)|
|Recent Changes (2016)|
|new banks: 2, closed banks: 34|
Currently there are 92 credit institutions operating in Hungary.
In 2016 consolidated banking assets in Hungary were 108.19 bln EUR. The consolidated banking assets' evolution is shown at Chart 9 below.
Chart 9. Consolidated banking assets in Hungary.
Recent structural changes (2013 - 2016) of the banking sector of Hungary are summarised in Table 3.
|Number of Opened Banks||0||0||6||2|
|Number of Closed Banks||0||0||52||34|
Table 3. Recent structural changes in the banking sector of Hungary.
The list of the most recently opened banks in Hungary is provided in Table 4.
|K&H Jelzálogbank Zártkörűen Működő Részvénytársaság (new)||October 2016|
|ERSTE Jelzálogbank Zártkörűen Működő Részvénytársaság (new)||July 2016|
|AEGON Magyarország Lakástakarékpénztár Zártkörűen Működő Részvénytársaság (new)||August 2015|
|Bank of China Limited Magyarországi Fióktelepe (new)||August 2015|
|DUNA TAKARÉK BANK Zrt. (new)||August 2015|
|Deutsche Bank AG Magyarországi Fióktelepe (new)||August 2015|
|ERSTE Lakástakarékpénztár Zártkörűen Működő Részvénytársaság (new)||August 2015|
|Polgári Bank Zártkörűen Működő Részvénytársaság (new)||August 2015|
Table 4. The most recently opened banks in Hungary.
All the credit institutions operating in Hungary can be classified into several categories. Table 5 summarises the number of banks in each category.
|Category||Number of Banks|
|Branches of foreign banks||9|
There are 9 branches of foreign banks from 7 different countries in Hungary. Table 6 shows the number of branches grouped by the country of origin.
|Country of Origin||Number of Branches|