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Economy and Banking Sector of Romania

Southeastern Europe
Population  (2017)
19 638 309  (-0.01%)
EU Status
member since 2007
RON (Romanian new leu)
Nominal GDP (2016)
169.6 bln EUR  (+0.05%)
Credit Ratings (as of Sep 2016)
Consolidated Banking Assets (2016)
88 202.04 mln EUR  (+4.32%)
Deposit Guarantee
100 000 EUR
Number of Banks

Romania is a country in Southeastern Europe, a member of the European Union since 2007.

Romania is an upper-middle income country with main industries being electric machinery and equipment, auto assembly, textiles and footwear, light machinery, metallurgy, chemicals, food processing, petroleum refining, mining, timber, construction materials.

The banking sector of Romania is highly concentrated and is dominated by foreign-controlled banks. Banks in Romania operate as universal banks.

List of Banks in Romania

National Currency

Romanian New Leu (RON)

Exchange Rate

1 EUR = 4.5958 RON (2017-10-19)

During the last 9 years EURRON exchange rate was within the range 3.6798 - 4.5800, reaching its maximum in Jul 2012 and falling to its minimum in Oct 2008.

Euro to Romanian new leu (EURRON). Chart 1. Euro to Romanian new leu (EURRON). Source: ECB.


Nominal GDP (2016)Nominal GDP per Capita (2016)Real GDP Growth (2016)
169.6 bln EUR  (+0.05%)8 600 EUR  (+0.06%)4.8 %  (2015: 3.9 %)

According to Eurostat, nominal GDP of Romania in 2016 was 169.6 bln EUR.

Romania outperforms the European Union in terms of real GDP growth with the average annual differential coming to 2.0% over the past 10 years (2006 - 2016). In 2016 real GDP growth was 4.8% which was above the Euro Area average (1.8%) and above the European Union average (1.9%). Real GDP growth in 2017 - 2022 are IMF's estimates.

Real GDP Growth in Romania. Chart 2. Real GDP Growth in Romania. Source: Eurostat, International Monetary Fund.

In 2016, nominal GDP per capita in Romania was 8 600 EUR.

Romania has a below-average level of wealth in terms of per-capita GDP at purchasing power parity (PPP); this economic welfare indicator has, on average, fell behind that of the European Union by -36.6% over the past 10 years (2006 - 2016). GDP per capita at PPP in 2017 - 2022 are IMF's estimates.

GDP Per Capita at Purchasing Power Parity in  Romania; European Union = 100. Chart 3. GDP Per Capita at Purchasing Power Parity in Romania; European Union = 100.

Inflation Rate

CPI, MoM (Sep 2017)CPI, YoY (Sep 2017)CPI, Year Average (2016)
0.6 %  (Aug 2017: -0.3 %)1.3 %  (Aug 2017: 0.6 %)-1.1 %  (2015: -0.4 %)

According to Eurostat, inflation rate in Romania in 2016 expressed as annual percentages of average consumer prices was -1.1% which was below the Euro Area average (0.2%) and below the European Union average (0.3%). Inflation rates in 2017 - 2022 are IMF's estimates.

Inflation Rate in Romania. Chart 4. Inflation Rate in Romania. Source: Eurostat, International Monetary Fund.

Unemployment Rate

Unemployment Rate (2016)
5.9 %  (2015: 6.8 %)

Government Bond Yield

Government Bond Yield (Sep 2017)
3.89 %  (Aug 2017: 3.86 %)
According to Eurostat, government bond yield in Romania in Sep 2017 was 3.89%, compared to 3.86% in Aug 2017.
Government bond yield of Romania. Chart 5. Government bond yield of Romania. Source: Eurostat.

Credit Ratings (as of Sep 2016)

Fitch Moody's
BBB- (good credit quality), outlook stable Baa3 (lower medium grade), outlook positive

Double Taxation Agreements

Double Taxation Agreement (DTA) is an agreement between two or more countries for the avoidance of double taxation.

DTAs of Romania: 80 Signed Agreements

Romania signed DTAs which already came info force with the following jurisdictions (for agreements which came into force after 01 January 2013 the date of coming into force is given in brackets):

 Bosnia and Herzegovina
 Czech Republic
 India (Dec 2013)
 Korea, Democratic People's Republic of
 Korea, Republic of
 Moldova, Republic of
 Russian Federation
 San Marino
 Saudi Arabia
 South Africa
 Sri Lanka
 United Arab Emirates
 United Kingdom
 United States

There are also several agreements between Romania and other jurisdictions which were signed but haven't yet come into force (for agreements signed after after 01 January 2013 of signing the agreement is given in brackets):


Information Exchange

There are 3 ways for jusrisdictions to exchange information on tax matters:

  • spontaneously;
  • on request;
  • automatically.

Spontaneous exchange of information is provision of information that is forseeably relevant to another party without a request being previously sent.

Tax Information Exchange Agreements (TIEAs) enable exchange of information on request relating to a specific tax investigation, either criminal or civil.

Automatic information exchange allows jurisdictions to exchange information automatically, without having a specific tax investigation.

Exchange on Request: 1 Signed Agreements

Romania signed TIEAs which already came info force with the following jurisdictions (for agreements which came into force after 01 January 2013 the date of coming into force is given in brackets):


Automatic Exchange: Starts in September 2017

Romania signed the automatic information exchange agreement on 29 October 2014 and committed to start the automatic information exchange in September 2017.

Further Information


Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (FATCA) which became law in the United States in March 2010, focuses on reporting made by foreign financial institutions about financial accounts held by US taxpayers or foreign entities in which US taxpayers hold a substantial ownership interest. The FATCA-reporting is facilitated by Intergovernmental Agreements (IGAs).

FATCA Status in Romania
IGA in effect since 28 May 2015, Model 1

Romania has FATCA agreement with the U.S. in effect since 28 May 2015 (Intergovernmental Agreement Model 1). Financial institutions operating in Romania are required to identify U.S. taxpayers by January 1, 2017 and to report the information for 2017 and the subsequent years. The agreement is reciprocal: Romanian financial accounts hold in U.S. financial institutions will be reported to Romanian authorities.

Further Information

Financial Market Development

Financial Market Development
3.7 (max 7.0), 88th out of 138 countries
Banks' Soundness
4.6 (max 7.0), 79th out of 138 countries

According to World Economic Forum's Global Competitiveness Report 2017-2018, financial market development in Romania is scored 3.7 out of maximum 7.0 and ranked 88th out of 138 analysed economies. Soundness of banks is scored 4.6 bringing Romania into the 79th place, trustworthiness and confidence of financial market is scored 4.7 (42nd place).

Financial Market Development in Romania. Chart 6. Financial Market Development in Romania. Source: WEF.

Deposit Guarantee Scheme

Maximum Protected Amount
100 000 EUR

Deposit Guarantee Schemes compensate certain deposits held by depositors of a bank that becomes unable to meet its obligations.

From a depositor's point of view it is important to know:

  • if the depositor is eligible within the terms of the deposit guarantee scheme;
  • if the depositor's bank is a participant in the deposit guarantee scheme;
  • if the depositor's type of deposit is covered by the deposit guarantee scheme.

All these details about deposit guarantee scheme in Romania are summarised in Table 1.

Scheme Participantsall credit institutions operating in Romania, branches of non-EU banks, branches of Romanian banks abroad
Scheme Exemptionsbranches of EU-banks (covered by their home countries)
Eligible Depositorsnatural persons, legal entities
Covered Accountsany credit balance, including due interest
Maximum Protected Amount100 000 EUR
Paid In CurrencyRON

Table 1. Deposit guarantee scheme in Romania.

Further Information

Country Ceiling for Deposits

Moody's country ceilings for deposits specify the highest rating that can be assigned to local- or foreign- currency denominated deposit obligations of a bank or other deposit taking institution domiciled within that country.

Local Currency (Romanian new leu) Foreign Currency
A3 (upper medium grade) Baa3 (lower medium grade)

Local currency (Romanian new leu) deposit ceiling for Romania is set to A3 (upper medium grade), foreign currency deposit ceiling is Baa3 (lower medium grade).

Deposit Rates

Average Deposit Rate (Aug 2017, RON)
0.72 %  (Jul 2017: 0.77 %)
In Aug 2017, an agreed annualised deposit rate in local currency (Romanian new leu) of new contracts with agreed maturity up to 1 year between credit institutions and households was 0.72% .
Deposit Rates in Romania. Chart 7. Deposit Rates in Romania. Source: ECB.

Further Information

Banking Sector Structure

Number of Banks
Consolidated Assets (2016)
88 202.04 mln EUR  (+4.32%)
Recent Changes (2016)
new banks: 1, closed banks: 0

Currently there are 39 credit institutions operating in Romania.

In 2016 consolidated banking assets in Romania were 88 202.04 mln EUR. The consolidated banking assets' evolution is shown at Chart 8 below.

Consolidated banking assets in Romania. Chart 8. Consolidated banking assets in Romania.

Recent structural changes (2013 - 2016) of the banking sector of Romania are summarised in Table 2.

Number of Opened Banks1201
Number of Closed Banks1130

Table 2. Recent structural changes in the banking sector of Romania.

The list of the most recently opened banks in Romania is provided in Table 3.

NameStart Date
 TBI Bank EAD Sofia - Sucursala Bucuresti (new)May 2014

Table 3. The most recently opened banks in Romania.

All the credit institutions operating in Romania can be classified into several categories. Table 4 summarises the number of banks in each category.

CategoryNumber of Banks
Branches of foreign banks8
Central banks1
Housing savings banks2

Table 4. Number of banks by category in Romania.

There are 8 branches of foreign banks from 8 different countries in Romania. Table 5 shows the number of branches grouped by the country of origin.

Country of OriginNumber of Branches

Table 5. Number of branches of foreign banks in Romania grouped by country of origin.

Savings Accounts

Minimal Interest Rate
0.55 %
Maximum Interest Rate
0.55 %
5 offers from 1 banks

Time Deposit Accounts

Minimal Interest Rate
0.60 %
Maximum Interest Rate
2.00 %
8 offers from 2 banks