Spain is a developed country in Southwestern Europe. After the death of the dictator Francisco Franco in 1975, Spain managed to make a peaceful transition from dictatorship to democracy accompanied by rapid economic modernization, which allowed Spain joining the European Union in 1986.
In early 2008, the global financial crisis burst Spanish property boom resulting in a severe economic recession from which Spain is yet to recover. Nowadays, tourism is the most important service sector of Spanish economy, contributing about 10% of GDP, while fertilizers and chemicals are the most prominent industry sectors in Spain. Although Spain has been traditionally an agrarial country, agriculture now contributes about 3% of Spanish GDP.
Spanish banking system was deeply affected by the financial crisis: in June 2012 Spain requested 100 bln EUR to recapitalize Spanish banks. Series of mergers and acquisitions took place in 2009-2014 resulting in significant decrease in the number of banks operating in Spain and enlargement of the remaining banks.
Spain joined the Euro Area on 1 January 1999.
|Nominal GDP (2016)||Nominal GDP per Capita (2016)||Real GDP Growth (2016)|
|1 113.9 bln EUR (+0.03%)||24 000 EUR (+0.03%)||3.2 % (unchanged)|
According to Eurostat, nominal GDP of Spain in 2016 was 1 113.9 bln EUR.
Spain outperforms the European Union in terms of real GDP growth with the average annual differential coming to 0.2% over the past 10 years (2006 - 2016). In 2016 real GDP growth was 3.2% which was above the Euro Area average (1.8%) and above the European Union average (1.9%). Real GDP growth in 2017 - 2022 are IMF's estimates.
Chart 1. Real GDP Growth in Spain. Source: Eurostat, International Monetary Fund.
In 2016, nominal GDP per capita in Spain was 24 000 EUR.
Spain has a below-average level of wealth in terms of per-capita GDP at purchasing power parity (PPP); this economic welfare indicator has, on average, fell behind that of the European Union by -5.9% over the past 10 years (2006 - 2016). GDP per capita at PPP in 2017 - 2022 are IMF's estimates.
Chart 2. GDP Per Capita at Purchasing Power Parity in Spain; European Union = 100.
|CPI, MoM (Sep 2017)||CPI, YoY (Sep 2017)||CPI, Year Average (2016)|
|0.6 % (Aug 2017: 0.2 %)||1.8 % (Aug 2017: 2.0 %)||-0.3 % (2015: -0.6 %)|
According to Eurostat, inflation rate in Spain in 2016 expressed as annual percentages of average consumer prices was -0.3% which was below the Euro Area average (0.2%) and below the European Union average (0.3%). Inflation rates in 2017 - 2022 are IMF's estimates.
Chart 3. Inflation Rate in Spain. Source: Eurostat, International Monetary Fund.
|Unemployment Rate (2016)|
|19.6 % (2015: 22.1 %)|
|Government Bond Yield (Sep 2017)|
|1.54 % (Aug 2017: 1.48 %)|
Chart 4. Government bond yield of Spain. Source: Eurostat.
|BBB+ (good credit quality), outlook stable||Baa2 (lower medium grade), outlook stable|
Withholding taxes are imposed at source of income and are often applied to dividends, interest, royalties, rent and similar payments. The rates of withholding tax are often reduced by double taxation agreements.
Withholding tax rates applied on payments of interest and dividends in Spain are shown in Table 1.
|Natural person, resident||21.0 %||21.0 %|
|Natural person, non-resident||21.0 %||0.0 %|
Double Taxation Agreement (DTA) is an agreement between two or more countries for the avoidance of double taxation.
Spain signed DTAs which already came info force with the following jurisdictions (for agreements which came into force after 1 January 2013 the date of coming into force is given in brackets):
There are also several agreements between Spain and other jurisdictions which were signed but haven't yet come into force (for agreements signed after after 1 January 2013 of signing the agreement is given in brackets):
There are 3 ways for jusrisdictions to exchange information on tax matters:
Spontaneous exchange of information is provision of information that is forseeably relevant to another party without a request being previously sent.
Tax Information Exchange Agreements (TIEAs) enable exchange of information on request relating to a specific tax investigation, either criminal or civil.
Automatic information exchange allows jurisdictions to exchange information automatically, without having a specific tax investigation.
Spain signed TIEAs which already came info force with the following jurisdictions (for agreements which came into force after 1 January 2013 the date of coming into force is given in brackets):
Spain signed the automatic information exchange agreement on 29 October 2014 and committed to start the automatic information exchange in September 2017.
Spain has signed bilateral agreements with 58 jurisdictions to automatically receive information:
Spain has signed bilateral agreements with 67 jurisdictions to automatically send information:
Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (FATCA) which became law in the United States in March 2010, focuses on reporting made by foreign financial institutions about financial accounts held by US taxpayers or foreign entities in which US taxpayers hold a substantial ownership interest. The FATCA-reporting is facilitated by Intergovernmental Agreements (IGAs).
|FATCA Status in Spain|
|IGA in effect since 14 May 2013, Model 1|
Spain has FATCA agreement with the U.S. in effect since 14 May 2013 (Intergovernmental Agreement Model 1). Financial institutions operating in Spain are required to identify U.S. taxpayers by January 1, 2017 and to report the information for 2017 and the subsequent years. The agreement is reciprocal: Spanish financial accounts hold in U.S. financial institutions will be reported to Spanish authorities.
|Financial Market Development|
|4.0 (max 7.0), 68th out of 138 countries|
|4.6 (max 7.0), 80th out of 138 countries|
According to World Economic Forum's Global Competitiveness Report 2017-2018, financial market development in Spain is scored 4.0 out of maximum 7.0 and ranked 68th out of 138 analysed economies, trustworthiness and confidence of financial market is scored 4.2 (76th place).
Chart 5. Financial Market Development in Spain. Source: WEF.
Soundness of banks is scored 4.6 bringing Spain into the 80th place.
Chart 6. Soundness of Banks in Spain. Source: WEF.
|Maximum Protected Amount|
|100 000 EUR|
Deposit Guarantee Schemes compensate certain deposits held by depositors of a bank that becomes unable to meet its obligations.
From a depositor's point of view it is important to know:
All these details about deposit guarantee scheme in Spain are summarised in Table 2.
|Scheme Participants||all credit institutions operating in Spain, branches of non-EU banks, branches of Spanish banks abroad|
|Scheme Exemptions||branches of EU-banks (covered by their home countries)|
|Eligible Depositors||natural persons, legal entities|
|Covered Accounts||credit balances on accounts, nominative deposit certificates constituted in the EU|
|Maximum Protected Amount||100 000 EUR|
|Paid In Currency||EUR|
Table 2. Deposit guarantee scheme in Spain.
Moody's country ceilings for deposits specify the highest rating that can be assigned to local- or foreign- currency denominated deposit obligations of a bank or other deposit taking institution domiciled within that country.
|Local Currency (Euro)||Foreign Currency|
|Aa2 (high grade)||Aa2 (high grade)|
Local currency (Euro) deposit ceiling for Spain is set to Aa2 (high grade), foreign currency deposit ceiling is Aa2 (high grade).
|Average Deposit Rate (Aug 2017, EUR)|
|0.09 % (unchanged)|
Chart 7. Deposit Rates in Spain. Source: ECB.
|Number of Banks|
|Consolidated Assets (2016)|
|3 591.24 bln EUR (-2.00%)|
|Recent Changes (2016)|
|new banks: 2, closed banks: 11|
Currently there are 260 credit institutions operating in Spain.
In 2016 consolidated banking assets in Spain were 3 591.24 bln EUR. The consolidated banking assets' evolution is shown at Chart 8 below.
Chart 8. Consolidated banking assets in Spain.
Recent structural changes (2013 - 2016) of the banking sector of Spain are summarised in Table 3.
|Number of Opened Banks||2||6||4||2|
|Number of Closed Banks||11||21||13||11|
Table 3. Recent structural changes in the banking sector of Spain.
The list of the most recently opened banks in Spain is provided in Table 4.
|RBC Europe Limited. S.E (new)||July 2016|
|Unicredit. S.P.A. S.E (new)||January 2016|
|ABN AMRO BANK N.V.. S.E (new)||December 2015|
|CM-CIC Bail. S.E. (new)||September 2015|
|Banca Farmafactoring. SPA Suc en España (new)||May 2015|
|China Construction Bank (Europe). S.A.. S.E (new)||March 2015|
|Mirabaud & CIE (Europe), S.A., S.E. (new)||December 2014|
|Sumitomo Mitsui Banking Corporation Europe Ltd., S.E. (new)||December 2014|
|A&G Banca Privada, S.A. (new)||July 2014|
|Banca Popolare Etica Sociedad Cooperativa Per Aziones, S.E. (new)||July 2014|
Table 4. The most recently opened banks in Spain.
All the credit institutions operating in Spain can be classified into several categories. Table 5 summarises the number of banks in each category.
|Category||Number of Banks|
|Branches of foreign banks||84|
|Specialized credit institutions||50|
There are 87 branches of foreign banks from 15 different countries in Spain. Table 6 shows 10 countries having the biggest number of branches in Spain.
|Country of Origin||Number of Branches|
|1||Banco Santander, S.A.|
|2||Banco Bilbao Vizcaya Argentaria, S.A.|
|3||Caja de Ahorros y Pensiones de Barcelona|
|4||Banco Popular Espanol|