Turkey is a is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Western Asia, and a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula (Southeastern Europe). Turkey is a candidate for joining the European Union since 1987.
Historically being an agricultural country, Turkey is now emerging as a free-market economy increasingly driven by its industry and service sectors. Main industries of Turkish economy are textiles, food processing, automobiles, electronics, mining, steel, petroleum, and construction.
Turkish banking sector is highly concentrated and is dominated by domestic banks: around one-third of total banking assets are owned by "Big Four" Turkish major banks. There are also a number of international banking groups operating in Turkey via their branches and subsidiaries. Several banks offer Islamic banking products.
1 EUR = 4.642 TRY (2017-11-23)
During the last 11 years EURTRY exchange rate was within the range 1.6987 - 3.3903, reaching its maximum in Sep 2015 and falling to its minimum in Oct 2007.
Chart 1. Euro to Turkish lira (EURTRY). Source: ECB.
|Nominal GDP (2016)||Nominal GDP per Capita (2011)||Real GDP Growth (2016)|
|780.2 bln EUR (+0.01%)||7 500 EUR (unchanged)||3.2 % (2015: 6.1 %)|
According to Eurostat, nominal GDP of Turkey in 2016 was 780.2 bln EUR.
Turkey outperforms the European Union in terms of real GDP growth with the average annual differential coming to 2.6% over the past 10 years (2006 - 2016). In 2016 real GDP growth was 3.2% which was above the Euro Area average (1.8%) and above the European Union average (1.9%). Real GDP growth in 2017 - 2022 are IMF's estimates.
Chart 2. Real GDP Growth in Turkey. Source: Eurostat, International Monetary Fund.
In 2011, nominal GDP per capita in Turkey was 7 500 EUR.
Turkey has a below-average level of wealth in terms of per-capita GDP at purchasing power parity (PPP); this economic welfare indicator has, on average, fell behind that of the European Union by -24.1% over the past 10 years (2001 - 2011). GDP per capita at PPP in 2012 - 2022 are IMF's estimates.
Chart 3. GDP Per Capita at Purchasing Power Parity in Turkey; European Union = 100.
|CPI, MoM (Sep 2017)||CPI, YoY (Sep 2017)||CPI, Year Average (2016)|
|0.7 % (Aug 2017: 0.5 %)||11.1 % (Aug 2017: 10.7 %)||7.7 % (unchanged)|
According to Eurostat, inflation rate in Turkey in 2016 expressed as annual percentages of average consumer prices was 7.7% which was above the Euro Area average (0.2%) and above the European Union average (0.3%). Inflation rates in 2017 - 2022 are IMF's estimates.
Chart 4. Inflation Rate in Turkey. Source: Eurostat, International Monetary Fund.
|Unemployment Rate (2016)|
|10.9 % (2015: 10.3 %)|
|BBB- (good credit quality), outlook negative||Baa3 (lower medium grade)|
Double Taxation Agreement (DTA) is an agreement between two or more countries for the avoidance of double taxation.
Turkey signed DTAs which already came info force with the following jurisdictions (for agreements which came into force after 1 January 2013 the date of coming into force is given in brackets):
There are 3 ways for jusrisdictions to exchange information on tax matters:
Spontaneous exchange of information is provision of information that is forseeably relevant to another party without a request being previously sent.
Tax Information Exchange Agreements (TIEAs) enable exchange of information on request relating to a specific tax investigation, either criminal or civil.
Automatic information exchange allows jurisdictions to exchange information automatically, without having a specific tax investigation.
Turkey signed TIEAs which already came info force with the following jurisdictions (for agreements which came into force after 1 January 2013 the date of coming into force is given in brackets):
There are also several agreements between Turkey and other jurisdictions which was signed but haven't yet come into force (for agreements signed after 1 January 2013 of signing the agreement is given in brackets):
Turkey didn't sign the automatic information exchange agreement but made a commitment to start the automatic information exchange in September 2018.
Turkey has not singed any bilateral agreements to automatically receive information.
Turkey has not singed any bilateral agreements to automatically send information.
Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (FATCA) which became law in the United States in March 2010, focuses on reporting made by foreign financial institutions about financial accounts held by US taxpayers or foreign entities in which US taxpayers hold a substantial ownership interest. The FATCA-reporting is facilitated by Intergovernmental Agreements (IGAs).
|FATCA Status in Turkey|
|IGA in effect since 29 July 2015, Model 1|
Turkey has FATCA agreement with the U.S. in effect since 29 July 2015 (Intergovernmental Agreement Model 1). Financial institutions operating in Turkey are required to identify U.S. taxpayers by January 1, 2017 and to report the information for 2017 and the subsequent years. The agreement is reciprocal: Turkish financial accounts hold in U.S. financial institutions will be reported to Turkish authorities.
|Financial Market Development|
|3.8 (max 7.0), 80th out of 138 countries|
|5.2 (max 7.0), 58th out of 138 countries|
According to World Economic Forum's Global Competitiveness Report 2017-2018, financial market development in Turkey is scored 3.8 out of maximum 7.0 and ranked 80th out of 138 analysed economies, trustworthiness and confidence of financial market is scored 3.9 (95th place).
Chart 5. Financial Market Development in Turkey. Source: WEF.
Soundness of banks is scored 5.2 bringing Turkey into the 58th place.
Chart 6. Soundness of Banks in Turkey. Source: WEF.
|Maximum Protected Amount|
|100 000 TRL|
Deposit Guarantee Schemes compensate certain deposits held by depositors of a bank that becomes unable to meet its obligations.
From a depositor's point of view it is important to know:
All these details about deposit guarantee scheme in Turkey are summarised in Table 1.
|Scheme Participants||all credit institutions operating in Turkey (including branches of foreign banks), branches of Turkish banks abroad|
|Eligible Depositors||natural persons|
|Covered Accounts||all cash deposit accounts, precious metals accounts|
|Maximum Protected Amount||100 000 TRL|
|Paid In Currency||TRL|
Table 1. Deposit guarantee scheme in Turkey.
Moody's country ceilings for deposits specify the highest rating that can be assigned to local- or foreign- currency denominated deposit obligations of a bank or other deposit taking institution domiciled within that country.
|Local Currency (Turkish lira)||Foreign Currency|
|A3 (upper medium grade)||Baa3 (lower medium grade)|
Local currency (Turkish lira) deposit ceiling for Turkey is set to A3 (upper medium grade), foreign currency deposit ceiling is Baa3 (lower medium grade).
|Number of Banks|
Currently there are 53 credit institutions operating in Turkey.
All the credit institutions operating in Turkey can be classified into several categories. Table 2 summarises the number of banks in each category.
|Category||Number of Banks|
|Banks under management of SDIF||2|
|Branches of Foreign Banks Established Outside of Turkey||6|
|Foreign Commercial Banks Established in Turkey||15|
|Foreign Investment Banks Established in Turkey||4|
|Private Commercial Banks||8|
|Private Investment Banks||5|
|Public Commercial Banks||3|
|Public Investment Banks||4|
|Public Participation Banks||2|